Top 10 hardest programming languages to learn in 2024?

Hardest Programming language

Written by - rafay

April 29, 2024

When delving into instructing computer systems, one inevitably encounters the challenge of mastering the hardest programming languages. Humans are the sole instructors capable of imparting knowledge to these systems, guiding their every action. Each directive issued to a computer ultimately stems from human input. These instructions are communicated to machines via programming languages, which act as a bridge in the communication gap between them.

Navigating the intricacies of binary programming underscores the inherent difficulty and susceptibility to error in directly interfacing with computers. Consequently, the evolution of high-level languages, comprising English language constructs, has alleviated the burdens associated with binary coding. These languages serve as indispensable tools, empowering humans to articulate commands to computer systems efficiently.

Nowadays, programming languages drive advancements in artificial intelligence, software development, website creation, machine learning, natural language processing, and other domains.

What to know before learning any programming language

Any programming language, easy or challenging, takes practice. Thus, one must thoroughly research and choose a programming language that matches their job goals. Thus, it is crucial to consider the following aspects that make programming languages simpler or harder to learn.

Factors making a programming language harder to learn.

  1. Complex and odd syntax: Beginners may find it challenging to comprehend and write certain languages due to their complex coding conventions or unusual ways of organizing code.
  2. Multiple programming paradigms:  Writing a language that works with several programming styles requires knowledge of many problem-solving methods, such as functional programming, which emphasizes mathematical functions and immutability.
  3. Error management and output prediction:  Some languages make it hard to discover and fix bugs, and beginners may struggle to predict code output before running it.
  4. Technical jargon and abstract concepts:  Certain languages contain specialized terminology and concepts or include abstract ideas, making them harder to understand for non-computer scientists.
  5. Domain-specific focus and restricted code reuse: Some languages are less usable by broad users since they are created for specialized applications, such as artificial intelligence. Furthermore, it can be difficult to build upon and learn from examples of existing code when code snippets are not easily reusable in a given language.
  6. Expert guidance required: To comprehend and learn a language successfully, certain languages need the assistance of an experienced instructor or mentor.

What are the hardest programming languages?

Hardest programming languages to learn

Some programming languages, like C++, Haskell, Malbolge, Whitespace, BrainF**k, Intercal, Cow, Javascript, and Python are so difficult that most software experts find them entirely incomprehensible. They are now known as the hardest programming languages. The top programming languages that will be most difficult to learn in 2024 are listed below in detail:


The general-purpose programming language C++ was created by Bjarne Stroustrup as an addition to the C computer language. It is widely used by development teams for machine learning and data mining applications, as well as in-game and online development. C++ is losing favor to high-level languages like Python, Java, and JavaScript. Developers wonder: Is C++ hard? The quick solution! Learning C++ is challenging due to its multi-paradigm structure and sophisticated syntax.

Although it is well known to be especially difficult for beginners, programmers who have never worked with low-level languages before will find it just as difficult. Furthermore, C++ permits low-level memory manipulation, which, if improperly used, might result in undefined behavior and memory leaks. The number of open C++ developer opportunities shows that the STL offers powerful, high-level abstractions that are hard to understand.


It will take you at least three to four attempts to finally understand this hardest programming language. That will damage your other programming languages! Haskell programming is functional. In imperative languages, tasks are completed by giving them to the computer, which carries them out. It might alter its status while carrying them out. But it’s a lazy one. Haskell won’t execute functions or compute anything unless told to reply. Interpreting programs as data transformations is consistent with referential transparency.


Malbolge is one of the hardest programming languages to learn, having stolen the mental tranquility of numerous developers. You may understand the complexity of this language by looking at the first program, which was created by Ben Olmstead in 1998 and took about two years to complete. The main causes of Malbolge’s complexity are

  • restricted instructions,
  • substitution of instructions after execution,
  •  limits on loadable data.

Because of this, the code written in this language seems to be broken or shoddy. In actuality, a lot of people think that Ben Olmstead never created a single program in this language. Hisashi Lizawa recommended software protection using obfuscation using a Malbolge programming guide. Unreadable codes are hard to change.  Let’s say Alice wants to send Bob a program (or binary code), and Bob wants to run the program. Even encrypted code requires Bob’s permission to decrypt before execution. Bob can make the necessary modifications.

But an unintelligible program that operates as encrypted data and is written in one of the hardest programming languages to master layers of the code. That’s a major gain now. Significantly, the language was named after Dante’s Inferno’s eighth circle of hell, which is for fraudsters.


Whitespace was founded by Edwin Brady and Chris Morris at the University of Durham. On April 1, 2003, the language made its debut as one of the most difficult-to-learn programming languages. “Whitespace” comes from using only three white letters: space, tab, and newline. Programs developed in Whitespace consequently have their source code made invisible. Three characters are typically used to make the code visible: S for space (Space), T for tabulation (Tab), and L for a new line (Line feed).

The Whitespace interpreter treats non-Whitespace characters as code comments and ignores them. For instance, a tab followed by a space could represent a different command than a succession of spaces. Whitespace source code appears as plain text without programming language syntax since it does not separate keywords or identifiers.


In 1993, a student of physics from Switzerland named Urban Muller created Brainfuck to create a language with the smallest possible compiler. Müller got the idea for Brainfuck from Google software developer Wouter van Oortmerssen, who designed FALSE, a “perverse” programming language, earlier that year to establish a Turing-complete language with the smallest compiler. A compiler for modern computer languages like C++ might weigh 2.6 Mb, whereas the one for FALSE was just 1,024 bytes, or over 2,600 times smaller.

Brainfuck’s compiler ended up being an order of magnitude smaller than FALSE at just 240 bytes due to the exceptional simplicity of the language. There are just eight commands in Brainfuck: >, +, -, [,], and. Despite its simplicity, Brainfuck requires a lot of code to run a simple application, making it one of the most perplexing and difficult programming languages.


Jim Lyon and Don Woods created INTERCAL, one of the hardest coding languages to learn, in 1972 as a satire of several computer languages. ‘Compiler Language With No Pronounceable Acronym.’ was the first moniker given to it. INTERCAL includes various features that aim to frustrate programmers. For example, it employs modifiers such as “PLEASE”. The compiler may reject it if the word “PLEASE” is not used frequently in the code. The program is deemed ‘insufficiently courteous’ by the organization. On the other hand, if the modifier ‘PLEASE’ is used too many times, the compiler rejects the code as ‘excessively courteous!


Hundreds, if not thousands, get the wrong idea from the name. We’re not pointing to a piece of technology that will allow you to converse with cows. We also don’t intend to create a Google Translate interface to decipher the secret meaning of “MOO”. We are discussing COW, one of the top 6 hardest programming languages in the world to learn in 2024. It was created at the beginning of 2013 However, developers haven’t considered it. It became the world’s most complex programming language. Although Brainfuck negatively affects the COW, its creators purposefully included Bovine in the game. The cow is Turing complete and has 12 instructions, four more than Brainfuck. All twelve instructions are merely variations.


JavaScript can be challenging to learn due to its asynchronous nature, which can lead to unexpected behaviors for beginners. Its flexible syntax and dynamic typing can also be confusing, especially for those coming from statically typed languages. Additionally, the vast ecosystem of libraries and frameworks can overwhelm learners, making it difficult to know where to start. Moreover, browser inconsistencies and the constantly evolving nature of JavaScript further add to the complexity. However, with patience, practice, and resources like documentation and tutorials, mastering JavaScript is achievable.


Python can be challenging to learn due to its dynamic nature, which allows for flexibility but also introduces complexities. Beginners might find its whitespace-based syntax unintuitive, leading to errors. Additionally, grasping concepts like object-oriented programming and data structures can be daunting. Python’s vast ecosystem and diverse applications require learners to navigate a plethora of libraries and frameworks, adding another layer of complexity. Moreover, transitioning from simpler languages to Python’s more advanced features demands time and practice. Despite its challenges, Python’s popularity stems from its readability, versatility, and extensive community support, making the learning journey worthwhile.

Want to learn some real language?

Want to learn some real language?

A particular way of thinking is required for users of mainstream programming. But esolangs lead the user to think in ways that are time-consuming and unhelpful, even while they make sense for creating complex software.
An associate’s degree in computer science can also help people enter programming and computational thinking or develop their careers.

This can be particularly useful for bridging the knowledge gap between theory and actual application by helping to understand intricate programming languages and concepts. Thus, in 2024, we advise against learning the most difficult programming languages for breakfast. However, employ committed Glowlogix developers to fill the talent gap in your organization if you want to take advantage of actual programming to keep your clients in this intelligent age!

Strategies for Learning and Mastering Hardest Programming Languages

Acquiring proficiency in the hardest programming language might be a demanding yet fruitful undertaking. Here are some useful hints and counsel to support you on your travels.

Start with a Strong Foundation

Make sure you grasp fundamental programming ideas well before learning a complex language. Learn about basic concepts such as loops, conditional expressions, and variables.

Break it Down

Divide difficult ideas into smaller, more digestible chunks. Before going on to the next, concentrate on fully grasping one idea at a time. This step-by-step method facilitates improved understanding and memory.

Hands-On Practice

Put everything you’ve learned into practice by working on real-world coding tasks and exercises. Constructing practical applications aids in strengthening your comprehension of the language’s functionalities.

Seek Guidance

Become involved in programming organizations, forums, and online communities for the language you are studying. Speaking with seasoned, committed software developers can be a great way to get advice, support, and ideas.

Read Documentation and Books

Make use of official records and language-specific literature. These sites frequently include thorough explanations, tutorials, and examples to aid in your understanding of difficult ideas.

Work on Projects

Take on difficult initiatives that suit your interests. Using the language to work through practical issues improves your abilities and expands your comprehension.

Embrace the Learning Curve

Recognize that learning a challenging programming language requires time and effort. Be persistent and patient, and don’t be afraid to try new things and make mistakes. Resolving to learn from mistakes is a necessary component of the process.


In conclusion, navigating the ever-evolving landscape of programming languages in 2024 presents both challenges and opportunities. The hardest programming languages to learn vary on personal history and learning style, although numerous languages are complex and have steep learning curves. However, it’s important to recognize that the difficulty of a programming language often correlates with its power and versatility.

Embracing these languages’ hurdles can lead to substantial software development growth and expertise, exposing new technology possibilities. As the industry evolves, aspiring programmers should study these difficult languages to expand their abilities and expertise.

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